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高考英语复习:语法填空解题技巧         ★★★
高考英语复习:语法填空解题技巧
作者:佚名 文章来源:网络 点击数: 更新时间:2015-10-28 11:05:58

语法填空解题攻略
 
解题步骤:
 
u 解题技巧解读:

(一)提示性填空的做题方法

1. 动词

(1)如果所给词是动词,空格前是名词或代词,比较复杂的时候是动名词、不定式或者主语从句,那么这个空一定是缺谓语,所以要根据上下文判断句子的时态和语态。如the young man ________(present)the water to the old.根据上下文可以判断是一般过去式presented.

(2)如果句子不缺谓语,而所给词又是动词,如果能排除是词形转换题的话,那么这个空一定是非谓语动词。学生要清楚的知道非谓语动词包括动词不定式、动名词、现在分词和过去分词以及他们的被动式和完成时等。同时要记住动词不定式在句子中可以充当除了谓语之外的所有句子成分,多数情况下,动词不定式表示动作还未发生;动名词可以在句子中做主语、宾语、表语和定语;现在分词和过去分词做定语、状语、补语和表语。同时,现在分词通常表示动作正在进行,和逻辑主语是主谓关系,而过去分词表示动作已完成或者和逻辑主语是动宾关系。

    基本知识掌握后,还要关注上下文中提供的关键词来判断是哪种非谓语动词形式,比如watch,see, notice,hear等词,那么有doing 和do 两种情况,诸如此类的加动词不定式和动名词的单词和短语学生都积累了不少,所以只要做题时加以关注,还是没有问题的。现在分词和过去分词的判定比不定式和动名词要难,但是,只要记住固定句式结构之外就是要找准动词和逻辑主语之间的关系,尤其是主句之前或者之后出现了逗号这种情况,尤其要引起注意。如he spit it out, ______(say)it was awful.(saying)

2. 形容词和副词

首先,要让学生确切的知道,形容词在句子中充当的句子成分和所处位置。a.形容词可以放在名词前面做定语;b.形容词可以在系动词后面作表语;c.形容词可以放在宾语后做宾语补足语。副词在句子中所充当的句子成分和所处的位置。a.副词放在动词的前后做动词状语;b.副词放在形容词前做形容词的状语;c.副词放在副词前面做状语。这样,学生会比较明确的判断句子所缺的是什么。如,his teacher took a deep drink, smiled______(warm),and thanked his student very much for the sweet water.(warmly)

其次,要明确形容词和副词之间的词性和词形转换。根据前文,学生能够判断句子却的是形容词还是副词之后,根据上下文逻辑结构和句子意思,通过加减前后缀的办法把题目做正确。如2010年广东卷考查了副词warmly: ... His teacher took a deep drink, smiled ________(warm), and thanked his student very much for the sweet water...另外,2007年广东卷考查了副词merrily:...We drank together and talked _______(merry) till far into the night...

第三,注意形容词和副词的比较级别,同级比较用as...as...和not so...as...,其中要加形容词副词的原级。用形容词和副词取决于前面的动词是系动词还是实义动词;比较级有比较连词than或者根据上下文判断有隐性的比较;最高级前面有标志性的词the。

3. 名词

    名词在语法填空中出现的几率比较低,但是名词却是做自由填空的一个非常重要的参照物。名词在提示性填空部分,最可能出现的题就是动词转化成名词这种形式。但是学生必须明确名词的特点。单数可数名词前面必须有三类修饰限定词:a.必须有a/an,the;b.必须有形容词性的物主代词;c.必须有指示代词this或者that以及不定代词。三者是必有其一,互不兼容。不可数名词最显著的特点就是不能与a/an连用,但是英语中要注意一词多义的情况(如抽象名词具体化)。

 (二)自由填空题的做题方法

1. 介词

    介词包括表时间、方位、方式的介词on,in,at,with,by,through等。介词最大的特点可以和动词、形容词等构成固定短语,通常都是介词在后,再就是和名词构成固定短语,尤其是要注意是否加冠词的情况。同时,学生要清楚介词后通常都是加名词、代词(宾格、名词性物主代词、反身代词)、动名词和宾语从句等。
        如2010年高考英语(广东卷)考查了with表伴随的用法:... The young man went home _______ a happy heart...;2009年广东卷考查了介词on和at: ... Jane stopped where a small crowd of men had gathered. She found some good quality pipes ______ sale... When Jane got home, with her small but well-chosen present in her bag, her parents were already _______table having supper...
2. 连词

    连词的考查包括的内容比较宽泛,主要区分开两大部分,即并列句和复合句。这是做连词题的关键。

    并列句是由两个或两个以上的简单句句用并列连词连在一起构成的句子,其基本结构是“简单句+并列连词+简单句”。并列句中的各简单句意义同等重要,相互之间没有从属关系,是平行并列的关系。它们之间用连词连结。包括表转折的连词but,while;表并列的连词and,or;表因果的连词because,so等等。如2008年广东卷考查了连词but: ... He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, ______ he felt very happy since the crop did “grow” higher...

    从属复合句由一个主句(Principal Clause)和一个或一个以上的从句(Subordinate Clause)构成。用疑问词作引导词,主句是全句的主体,通常可以独立存在;从句则是一个句子成分,不能独立存在。从句不能单独成句,但它也有主语部分和谓语部分,就像一个句子一样。所不同在于,从句须由一个关联词(connective)引导。主从复合句包括形容词性从句(The Attributive Clause);副词性从句(The Adverbial Clause);名词性从句(The Noun Clause)三大类。

    主从复合句和并列句最大的区别就是主句对从句有很大的影响,从句是从属于主句的一个句子成分,有自己独立的主谓等句子成分的同时,还要受到主句的制约和影响。同时学生要对三大类句子的基本特点特别清楚,比如,定语从句的关系代词和关系副词的选用,非限制性定语从句的特点等;名词性从句中同位语从句和定语从句的区别等。

3. 冠词    冠词的用法主要和名词连在一起,根据上下文进行判断是用定冠词还是不定冠词,亦或是不用冠词的情况。

4.代词   在语法填空里,考查比较多的有人称代词和不定代词,人称代词要弄清楚所指代的性别和数,不定代词要弄清楚所指代或修饰的词是什么。
    总而言之,学生在了解全文大意的基础上,从语篇着手并联系上下文,根据自己掌握的语法知识、词汇知识、生活常识、固定词组、句型搭配及对某一国家的风俗习惯、文化背景的了解、行文的逻辑关系、语篇标志等进行填空。

                               (一)
Once there lived a rich man   31   wanted to do something for the people of his town.   32   first he wanted to find out whether they deserved his help.
    In the centre of the main road into the town, he placed   33   very large stone. Then he   34  (hide ) behind a tree and waited. Soon an old man came along with his cow.
    “Who put this stone in the centre of the road?” said the old man, but he did not try to remove the stone. Instead, with some difficulty he passed around the stone and continued on his way.   35   man came along and did the same thing; then another came ,and another. All of them complained about the stone but not tried to remove  36  . Late in the afternoon a young man came along. He saw the stone,   37  (say) to himself: “The night   38  (be) very dark. Some neighbors will come along later in the dark and will fall against the stone.”                
Then he began to move the stone. He pushed and pulled with all his   39   (strong) to move it. How great was his surprise at last!   40   the stone, he found a bag of money.
答案:31. who  32.  But  33. a  34. hid  35. Another 36. it 37. saying 38. will be 39. strength  40. Under
                                 (二)
The Internet is an amazing information resource. Students, teachers, and researchers use it as __31_  investigative tool. Journalists use it to find information for stories. Doctors use it to learn more about unfamiliar diseases and the  32_ (late) medical development. Ordinary people use it for shopping, banking, bill-paying, and communicating with family and friends. People all over the world use it to connect with individuals from  _33  countries and cultures. However, __34____there are many positive developments  __35__ (associate) with the Internet, there are also certain fears and concerns.  __36___  concern relates to a lack of control over__37__  appears on the Internet. With television and radio there are editors to check the accuracy or appropriateness of the content of programs, and with television there are  38 (restrict) on what kinds of programs can  __39__ (broadcast) and at what times of the day. With the Internet, parents cannot check a published guide to determine what is suitable __40____ their children to see.
答案:31. an   32. latest   33.other/different  34. while    35.associated  36. One  37. what 
 38. restrictions    39. be broadcast(ed)    40.for
                                   ( 三 )
Crying marriage?  31   (surprise), isn’t it? Factually, the custom of crying marriage existed a long time ago in many areas of Southwest China’s Sichuan Province, and   32  (remain) in fashion   33   the end of the Qing Dynasty. Though not so popular as before, the custom is still observed by people in many places, especially Tujia people, who view it as a   34   (necessary) to marriage procedure.
It is very much   35   same in different places of the province. According to elderly people, every bride had to cry at the wedding.   36  , the bride’s neighbors would look down upon   37   as a poorly cultivated girl and she would become the laughingstock of the village. In fact, there were cases   38  which the bride was beaten by her mother for not crying at the wedding ceremony.
In a word, crying at wedding is a   39   by custom to set off the happiness of the wedding through falsely sorrowful words. However, in the   40   (arrange) marriages of the old days of China, there were indeed quite a lot of brides who cried over their unsatisfactory marriage and even their miserable life.
答案:31. Surprising    32.remained   33. until/till 34. necessity   35. the    36. Otherwise   37. her     38. in     39. way/means    40. arranged  
                                      (四)
In my free time, I really like surfing the Internet. When I get home from work, I turn on my computer, wait __31____it boots up completely, and then I go online. I usually check my email first and then write a few messages __32____ family and friends. I sometimes scan the local news headlines at ___33___ favorite news Website and read up on the latest local and international news. This Website often provides video news clips____34___ you can view online. I sometimes order products or service online to save money and time instead of going to a store and__35____(buy) what I'm looking for. For example, I ___36____  (order)a digital camera online the other day and saved about $50. Whatever I do, I realize that there are problems__37_____ using the Internet including scams, identify theft, and viruses, so I'm very careful not to give out my ____38_____ (person) information. Furthermore, I don't download or open files I don't recognize. Using the Internet can be fun and__39____ convenient way of shopping and finding out new information, _____40___ you just need to be careful
31 until / till 32. to 33. my 34 that / which 35. buying
36. ordered 37. with 38. personal 39. a  40. but
 
                                (五)
In order to know a foreign language thoroughly, four things are neccessary. Firstly, we must understand the language when we hear  ______31________ spoken.. Secondly, we must be able to speak it correctly with confidence and without hesitation. _____32_______ ,we must be able to read the language , and fourthly, we must be able to write it. We must be able to make sentences that are grammatically correct.
There is no easy way to success _____33_______ language learning. _____34________ good memory is of great help, but it is not enough only _____35________(memorize) rules from a grammar book. It is not much use learning by heart long list of words and ______36_________meaning, studying the dictionary and so on. We must learn by using the language. _______37_______we are satisfied with only a few rules we have memorized, we are not really learning the languang. “Learn through use” is a good piece of _____38______(advise) for those ______39______are studying a new language. Practice is important. We must practise speaking and ____40____(write) the language whenever we can.
 
答案:  31.it  32. Thirdly  33. in  34. A  35. to memorize
36. their  37. If   38. advice  39. who  40. writing
 
 
 
                            
                          六
第二节:语法填空(共10小题,每小题1.5分,满分15分)
At one point along an open highway, I came to a crossroads with a traffic light. I was alone on the road by now, but    31   I drove up to the light, it turned red, and I braked to a halt. I look left, right, and behind me. Nothing.   32   a car, no suggestion of headlights, but there I sat,   33  (wait) the light to change, the only human being for at least a mile in any direction.
I started wondering   34   I refused to run the light. I was not afraid of   35   (catch) by the police, because there was obviously no cop anywhere around and   36   certainly would have been no danger in going   37   it. Much later that night, the   38   question of why I’d stopped for that light came   39   to me. I think I stopped because it’s part of a contract (合同) we all have with each other. It’s not only the law, but it’s an agreement we have, and we trust each other to honor   40   : we don’t go through red lights. Like most of us, I’m more ready to be stopped from doing something bad by the social agreement that disapproves of it than by any law against it.
 
答案:
31. as / when   32. Not              33.waiting        34. why     35. being caught          
36.   there     37. through   38.same       39.back         40. it
 
                                   七
第二节 语法填空(共10小题,每小题1.5分,满分15分)
Nowadays, millions   31   lonely singles are now going online instead.   32   World Wide Web is quickly becoming the world’s most popular matchmaker(媒人).
     Singles are flocking(涌向) to the Internet   33   (main) because their busy lifestyles leave them little time to look for a significant other. Using dating sites(约会网址) is quick and convenient. Many singles say the regular dating scene    34  (just lead) them from one bad experience to   35   and are ready to try something else. Dating sites also make    36   easy to avoid someone   37   you are not interested in. In the real world,   38  , ignoring someone you don’t like can be difficult.
     Despite all the advantages, online dating also presents its own set of problems. People aren’t always those who they declare to be in their online   39  (describe). Safety is another concern. You are just   40  (like) to find a criminal online as you are Mr. Or Miss Right.
 
答案:
31. of  32. The  33. mainly  34. has just led  35. another   36. it
37. who / whom  38. however  39. description  40. likely
 
                                八
第二节  语法填空(共10小题,每小题1.5分,满分15分)
Polar bears are suffering in a   31   (warm) world than ever before.
Polar bears live in environments too cold for most animals.   32   much of the year, they live and hunt on the frozen Arctic sea ice. Nature has prepared   33   for the cold conditions. But nothing has prepared the bears for the danger that   34   (threat) the only home they know.
The polar bears’ world is melting. Studies show that the polar ice has reduced by 9.8% every 10 years   35   1978. Now about 20,000 to 25,000 polar bears live in the Arctic. Polar bears depend on the sea ice for their   36   (survive). “The sea ice is more than just this platform that the bears walk over,” says Andrew Derocher,   37   scientist who studies North American polar bear populations. “  38   it, they can’t exist.”
Some melting and refreezing of the polar ice is natural.   39    in a warmer world, these cycles speed up, and bears have less time to hunt. Normally, they have three months in the spring when they gain more weight. The extra fat is used later,    40   the bears are not actively hunting.
第二节  语法填空(共10小题,每小题1.5分,满分15分)
题号
赋分
答案
31
1.5分
warmer
32
1.5分
For/During
1.0分
for/during
33
1.5分
them
34
1.5分
threatens
35
1.5分
since
36
1.5分
survival
37
1.5分
a
38
1.5分
Without
1.0分
without
39
1.5分
But
1.0分
but
40
1.5分
when
                                        九
第二节:语法填空(共10小题,每小题1.5分,满分15分)
     31   is possible that we simply do not stay in one place for a true friendship to develop. However, there can be no disagreement on the need for each of us   32 (think) carefully about the kind of friendships we want.
   To most of us, friendships are considered   33   (importance), but need to have clear in our own minds   34   kinds of friendships we want .Are they to be close or   35   (keep) at arm’s length? Do we want to share ourselves or do we want to walk on the surface? For some people, many friendships on the surface are quite enough—and that’s all right .But at some point we need to make sure that our expectations are the same as our   36   (friend)expectations. If one wants more from the friendship than the other, 37   if this is not talked about, one is likely at last to fell that he’s holding the short end of the stick. The sharing of personal experience   38 (include) our tears as well as our dark dreams 39   (be) the surest way to deepen friendships. But it must be undertaken slowly and carried on only if there signs of interest and action  40   return.
 
 
答案:
31. It   32. to think  33. important   34.the 35. kept  36.friends’   37. and  38. including  39.is  40. in
                                      十
第二节  语法填空(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分)
    Many teachers believe that the responsibilities for learning lie with the student. 31_____ a long reading assignment is given, instructors expect students to be familiar with 32_____ (inform) in the reading even if they do not discuss it in class or take an examination. The ideal student is considered to be one who is motivated to learn for the sake of learning, not the one interested only in getting high grades. Sometimes homework is returned 33_____ brief written comments but without a grade. Even if a grade is not given, the student is 34_________(responsibility) for learning the material assigned. When research 35______( assign), the professor expects the student to take it actively and to complete it with minimum guidance. It is the student's responsibility to find books, magazines, and articles in the library. Professors do not have the time to explain 36_____ a university library works; they expect students, 37______(special) graduate students, to be able to exhaust the reference origins in the library. Professors will help students who need it, but prefer that their students should not be too dependent on them. In the United States, professors have many other duties 38 ______ teaching, such as administrative or research work. Therefore, the time 39______ a professor can spend with a student outside of class 40______( limit). If a student has problems with classroom work, the student should either approach a professor during office hours or make an appointment.
 
答案:
31. If / When  32. information  33. with    34. responsible  35. is assigned   36. how
37. particularly/especially      38. besides   39. which/ that  40. is limited
                               十一
第二节 语法填空(共10小题,每小题1.5分,满分15分)
This is a true story which happened in the States. A man came out of his home to admire his new truck. To his   31  (puzzle), his three-year-old son was   32  (happy) hammering dents(凹痕) into the shiny paint of the truck. The man ran to his son, knocked him away, hammered the little boy's hands into pulp(果浆汁) as   33  (punish). When the father calmed down, he rushed his son to the hospital.
  34   the doctor tried desperately to save the crushed bones, he finally had to cut the fingers from both the boy's hands. When the boy   35  (wake) up from the operation and saw his bandaged stubs, he innocently said, “Daddy, I'm sorry about your truck.” Then he asked, “  36    when are my fingers going to grow back?”
The father went home and committed suicide.
Think about this story   37   next time someone steps on your feet or you wish to take revenge. Think first   38    you lose your patience with someone you love. Trucks can   39  (repair). Broken bones and hurt feelings often can't. Too often we fail to recognize the difference between the person and the performance. We forget that forgiveness is   40  (great) than revenge.
People make mistakes. We are allowed to make mistakes. But the actions we take while in a rage will impress us forever.
31. puzzlement   32. happily      33. punishment   34. Although / Though
35. woke     36. but       37. the       38. before    39. be repaired    40. greater  
                                  十二

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